This agreement was signed between Egypt and Great Britain, which represented Uganda, Kenya, Tanganjika (now Tanzania) and Sudan. The document gave Cairo the right to veto higher projects on the Nile that would affect its share of water. When we recently celebrated Earth Day, it is important that we reflect on the importance of natural resources like the Nile and understand why they are so important, especially for Africa and its long-term development. In fact, 160 million people depend on the waters of this important river for a living. Therefore, effective and sustainable conservation, maintenance and use of Nile waters and resources is a common goal. The other option, and probably the best, is to manage all the dams via the Nile Basin Commission, an organization that is planned for cooperation in the framework agreement. It was an attempt by the neighbouring countries to create a basin-wide framework to regulate interstate use and management of the Nile. All countries in the Nile basin, with the exception of Egypt and Sudan, have agreed. These differences on the use of the Nile are not new and indeed have a long history, as these countries are heavily dependent on the waters of the Nile. In 1929, an agreement was reached between Egypt and Great Britain on the use of Nile waters – Britain represented its colonies in the Nile basin.  The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty dealt with many issues concerning the Nile and its tributaries. The fact that it has granted Egypt an annual allocation of 48 billion cubic metres of water and Sudan 4 billion cubic metres, on an estimated average annual yield of 84 billion cubic metres, is particularly important for the current debate.
In addition, the 1929 agreement granted Egypt a veto over construction projects on the Nile or one of its tributaries in order to minimize interference in the flow of water into the Nile.  The countries bordering the Nile are Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan (Republic), Tanzania and Uganda. Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan are downstream border countries. However, South Sudan has stated that it does not recognize the 1959 bilateral agreement between Egypt and Sudan. The 2015 agreement between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan – Sudan acting as a mediator – is a significant but predictable change in Cairo`s approach to the Nile – that these colonial agreements are not sustainable. About 85 per cent of the water flowing into the Nile comes from the Ethiopian highlands crossing the Blue Nile; The rest comes from the White Nile. It was simply unrealistic and unsustainable for Egypt to believe that it could continue to prevent Ethiopia from using the water resources of its borders to meet the needs of its people. While it is true that Egyptians depend entirely on Nile waters for all their needs, they must be sensitive to the development needs of upstream riparian countries, particularly because they, particularly Ethiopia, are able to cause considerable damage to the quantity and quality of water flowing into the Nile. This is why the practical and conciliatory attitude of the Egyptian leaders in their decision to support the Addis Ababa « Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam » (GERDP) project should be welcomed. However, Cairo must go further and sign and ratify the CFA without insisting on amendments to Article 14, point b), in order to guarantee Egypt the rights created by the Agreements on Nile waters. With the CFA, the 11 riparian countries can negotiate in good faith to agree on an all-inclusive allocation formula that is considered fair, fair and reasonable. As Africa is increasingly affected by climate change, the continent`s various groups must agree to cooperate in the development of institutional structures that can improve their ability to live together peacefully and distribute their natural resources, including water, in a fair and sustainable manner.