Most high-income countries have already abolished drug tariffs, either unilaterally or through reciprocal agreements under the 1994 GATT WTO agreement on drug trade [54, 56], and tariffs on medicines maintained by LICADs have gradually decreased . However, some countries (including India) continue to apply relatively high tariffs . The share of global pharmaceutical trade with countries that maintain tariffs increased between 2006 and 2013, meaning that an increasing share of pharmaceutical trade is subject to tariffs . In this context, recent trade agreements can still play an important role in reducing drug tariffs. BT is a member of the Australian Public Health Association and has represented the association on trade agreements and public health issues. It has been funded by various non-governmental organizations for conferences on trade agreements and health. The right balance between the import of medicines and local production is a country-by-country balance: in some cases, importing can be more financially efficient. However, in some contexts, tariffs can be used as important instruments to resolve tensions between accessibility objectives and the benefits of local production. Approval of binding commitments in trade agreements may mean sacrificing some political flexibility in adjustments or compromises in order to maximize its benefits. Trade agreements also contain provisions beyond the investigative period that may have an impact on pharmaceutical policy and practice. For example, trade agreements with Australia and Korea contained provisions for national drug coverage programs and pharmaceutical marketing regulation , and similar rules later appeared in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)  and the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).
The TPP also contained a series of innovative safety and efficacy assessment provisions , which were subsequently introduced into the USMCA . These provisions have been the subject of a less comprehensive analysis. Given the scope and scope of legislation negotiated in recent trade agreements, there are an increasing number of potential intersections between trade and investment rules and pharmaceutical policy that go beyond the familiar field of intellectual property and access to medicines, with a number of effects on the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3.8 (« Getting Universal Health Care) 3.8 (« Getting Universal Health Care) , including financial risk protection, access to quality basic health services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all » .